Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Internet access for all schools



Good news for warga pendidik. There are new opprtunities for teachers to explore in integrating Internet in classrooms. A challenge to Teacher Training Colleges to equip trainees to have competencies in ICT integration. Why not we use Peer Coaching as a vehicle or one of training strategies?


From The Star (30 Mac 2005):

PUTRAJAYA: Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi wants all schools in the country to have access to the Internet and has directed the relevant ministries to work towards this end.

The Prime Minister, who chaired the National Information Technology Council meeting here yesterday, said he was dissatisfied with the rate of Internet penetration among schools in the rural areas.

The Prime Minister noted that the gap between rural and urban schools is wide because of a lack of infrastructure facilities.

About 80% of schools now have access to the web but he wants all schools to have such access, Science, Technology and Innovations Minister Datuk Seri Dr Jamaluddin Jarjis said after the meeting.

He said Abdullah also suggested that the quality and content of programmes in Bahasa Malaysia transmitted to schools via the Internet be improved.

Saturday, March 26, 2005

Presumptive Minds


presumptive
Originally uploaded by mamcom.
Flickering Minds?
What is worse?

* A flickering mind
* A closed mind
* An empty mind
* A mind crammed full
* An unquestioning mind
* A lazy mind
* An unthinking mind
* Mentalsoftness
* Blindness
* Prejudice
* Bias
* Black and white thinking
* Presumption
* Certainty
* Sanctimony
* Hubris

Friday, March 25, 2005

Siswazah menganggur 5 tahun jadi usahawan tani berjaya


Bersama Kejayaannya
Kesempatan berada di menara gading, perlu digunakan untuk menimba ilmu dan pengalaman sebagai persediaan di alam pekerjaaan. Sistem pendidikan yang berjaya mampu melahirkan individu yang berada menceburi bidang yang bukan pengkhusuannya di universiti. Mungkin inilah yang maksudkan konsep 'relearn' dan 'unlearn', yang kemudian itu lebih mencabar dan memerlukan daya tahan. Saranan YB Menteri Pelajaran untuk melihat semula sistem persekolahan yang terlalu berpusat peperiksaan tentunya mendapat sokongan dan dokongan semua pihak. Anda bagaimana?

Petikan dari Utusan Malaysia (25 Mac 2005):

Tambahnya, beliau sedar untuk berjaya, segala perasaan malu, ego dan rasa rendah diri perlu dikikis bagi mencapai matlamat itu.

Bapa kepada dua anak hasil perkongsian hidup bersama Noraini Sulaiman, 39, itu kini boleh berbangga apabila perniagaannya telah berkembang ke seluruh negara walaupun pendapatan awal hanya sekitar RM400 sebulan.

Menurut Jamaluddin, ijazah yang diperoleh hanya sekadar untuk mendapat pengetahuan serta ilmu tetapi ia bukan lesen untuk memperoleh kerja bergaji besar tanpa berusaha sendiri.

``Saya semakin seronok apabila perniagaan ini mampu memberikan pendapatan lumayan sehingga melebihi empat angka,'' kata Jamaluddin yang turut menyambut baik langkah kerajaan mewujudkan semula Skim Latihan Siswazah Menganggur (SLSM) bagi mengatasi masalah pengangguran di kalangan lepasan institusi pengajian tinggi.

Tuesday, March 22, 2005

Tahniah YB Menteri Pelajaran


YB Menteri Pelajaran
Saya yakin ramai para pendidik menyambut baik pendapat YB Menteri Pelajaran baru-baru ini. Sebagai pendidik kita perlu menyediakan diri untuk menyahut cabaran ini.

Menurut Berita Harian (22 Mac 2005):

Menteri Pelajaran, Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein, berkata kementeriannya sedang memperbaiki mutu sekolah secara holistik dengan memberi penekanan ke arah melahirkan pelajar serba boleh.

œSesuatu pastinya tidak kena jika pelajar hanya melihat sekolah sebagai tempat persediaan untuk menduduki dua atau tiga peperiksaan penting. Latihan akademik lebih daripada persiapan peperiksaan dan pendidikan adalah lebih daripada latihan akademik.

Masa depan anak-anak kita sebagai pekerja, usahawan, pemimpin dan warga negara, tidak terletak kepada kemahiran menduduki peperiksaan semata-mata tetapi bergantung kepada daya intelek dan kemampuan sosial dalam konteks individu serba boleh dan unggul.

Ia bergantung kepada sejauh mana daya intelek, berhemah dan daya kemanusiaan mereka, katanya dalam ucaptama perasmian Sidang Kemuncak Pendidikan Malaysia Kesembilan, di sini semalam.

Petikan dari New Straits Times (22 Mac 2005):

"Academic training is much more than examination preparation, and education is much more than academic training.

"The future success of our children as workers, entrepreneurs, leaders and citizens will depend not on their examination skills but on their intellectual and social capacity in the context of well-rounded and well-developed personalities."

Hishammuddin said the ministry encouraged co-curricular activities, uniformed groups, music and art to enrich the school experience as they not only brought motivation and joy back into school, but also reinforced the point that learning should be a constructive and social process.

He noted that an overly exam-oriented system could be counterproductive as

"students would see learning as a once-and-for-all matter, a painful exercise to be gotten through with gritted teeth".

Thursday, March 17, 2005

Is it TRUE? So cikgu ... macam mana?

The main barriers to teachers developing improved classroom practice with information technology are identified as:
  • teachers’ lack of access to appropriate technologies (hardware, software, and connectivity) due to costs, rapid rate of obsolescence, and location decisions;
  • teachers’ lack of time to experiment with technologies and plan lessons using new methods that incorporate technology;
  • teachers’ lack of knowledge or understanding of best curricular uses of technology (what software to use, how to integrate it into the curriculum, and how to organize classroom activities), owing to insufficient training, support and models of best practice;
  • teachers’ lack of knowledge and support for resolving technical and logistical problems in the classroom (see chapters 9 and 11) and
  • more than any other factor, teachers’ beliefs influence what they do in the classroom

Wow.... we should reflect hard..

Resouce URL: http://www.galileo.org/tips.html

"....Computers are not rescuing the school from a weak curriculum, any more than putting pianos in every classroom would rescue a flawed music program. Wonderful learning can occur without computers or even paper. But once the teachers and children are enfranchised as explorers, computers, like pianos, can serve as powerful amplifiers, extending the reach and depth of the learners."

Alan Kay

Within every living discipline today, knowledge is either furthered or created with the use of digital technologies. Through deep and robust inquiry, digital technologies are used to explore and discover new frontiers and at the same time they are the source of new discoveries. When we take the stewardship of the intellect (1) seriously as an educational charge, students must be given the opportunity to think differently each time they pick up a digital tool. This means that teachers need to use technology in their professional lives and students need to have access to a variety of technologies at every stage of their work

Learning how to teach effectively with technology both enables and requires some fundamental changes to schooling. Along with these changes come impressive results for students, including improved achievement; higher test scores; improved student attitude, enthusiasm, and engagement; richer classroom content; and improved student retention and job placement rates.(2)

We at the Galileo Educational Network recognize that teachers face an incredible challenge in learning how to successfully infuse Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into core curricula. "With technology, more than perhaps any area of education, the general vector of theory-into-practice is challenged. When we place adult tools in the hands of children, some of education's most-deep seated assumptions about the nature of childhood, cognitive development and effective learning environments are challenged. We are committed not only to drawing upon educational research about technology; we are committed to building that very body of understanding by feeding in images of the work of children and teachers that would not otherwise be available. We are not very much interested in what kids can do when technology is simply added to the mix of regular schooling, or is regarded as just another tool. There is lots of that kind of work already." (3) We are interested in getting at:

"What do schools and classrooms start to look like when they become knowledge-building environments in which "all children could and should be inventors of their own theories, critics of other people's ideas, analyzers of evidence, and makers of their own personal marks on this most complex world"(4).

What kinds of professional development help teachers to create these kinds of learning communities for others?(5)


End Notes

Clifford, Pat and Friesen, S. (2001). The stewardship of the intellect: Classroom life, educational innovation and technology. In Issues in the Integration of Technology into Teaching, Learning, and School Culture(s). B. Barrell (Ed.). Detselig Enterprises Ltd.
Glennan, Thomas A. and Arthur Melmed (1996). Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation, 18.
Clifford, Pat and Sharon Friesen (2001). Bringing Learning to Learners: The Galileo Educational Network. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia/Hypermedia & Educational Telecommunication, June 25 - June 30, Tampere, Finland.
Meier, Deborah (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. Boston: Beacon Press.
Grégoire, Réginald and Thérèse Laferrière. (2001) Project Based Collaborative Learning with Networked Computers. Available here.

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

MELAYU

Melayu itu orang yang bijaksana,
Nakalnya bersulam jenaka,
Budi bahasanya tidak terkira,
Kurang ajarnya tetap bersantun,
Bila mengampu bijak beralas tangan.

Melayu itu berani jika bersalah,
Kecut takut kerana benar,
Janji simpan di perut,
Selalu pecah di mulut,
Biar mati adat,
Jangan mati anak.

Melayu di Tanah Semenanjung luas maknanya,
Jawa itu Melayu,
Bugis itu Melayu,
Banjar juga disebut Melayu,
Minangkabau memang Melayu,
Keturunan Aceh adalah Melayu,
Jakun dan Sakai asli Melayu,
Arab dan Pakistani semua Melayu,
Mamak dan Malbari serap ke Melayu,
Malah Mualaf bertakrif Melayu.

Dalam sejarahnya,
Melayu itu pengembara lautan,
Melorongkan jalur sejarah zaman,
Begitu luas daerah sempadan,
Sayangnya kini segala kehilangan.

Melayu itu kaya falsafahnya,
Kias kata bidal pusaka,
Akar budi bersulamkan daya,
Gedung akal laut bicara.

Malangnya Melayu itu kuat bersorak,
Terlalu ghairah pesta temasya,
Sedangkan kampung telah tergadai,
Sawah sejalur tinggal sejengkal,
Tanah sebidang mudah terjual,

Meski telah memiliki telaga,
Tangan masih memegang tali,
Sedang orang mencapai timba,
Berbuahlah pisang tiga kali,
Melayu itu masih bermimpi,
Walaupun sudah mengenal Universiti,
Masih berdagang di rumah sendiri.

Berkelahi cara Melayu,
Menikam dengan pantun,
Menyanggah dengan senyum,
Marahnya dengan diam,
Merendah bukan menyembah,
Meninggi bukan melonjak.

Watak Melayu menolak permusuhan,
Setia dan sabar tiada sempadan,
Tapi jika marah tak nampak telinga,
Musuh dicari ke lubang cacing,
Tak dapat tanduk telinga dijinjing,
Maruah dan agama dihina jangan,
Hebat amuknya tak kenal lawan.

Berdamai cara Melayu indah sekali,
Silatulrrahim hati yang murni,
Madah diungkap sentiasa disahut,
Tangan dihulur sentiasa bersambut,
Luka pun tidaklah lagi berparut,
Baiknya hati Melayu itu tiada terbandingan,
Segala yang ada sanggup diberikan,
Sehingga tercipta sebuah kiasan,
"Dagang lalu nasi ditanakkan,
Suami pulang lapar tak makan,
Kera di hutan disusukan,
Anak di pangkuan mati kebuluran."

Bagaimanakah Melayu,
Di abad dua puluh Satu,
Masihkah tunduk tersipu-sipu?
Jangan takut melanggar pantang,
Jika pantang menghalang kemajuan.

Jangan segan menentang larangan,
Jika yakin kepada kebenaran,
Jangan malu mengucapkan keyakinan,
Jika percaya kepada keadilan.

Jadilah bangsa yang bijaksana,
Memegang tali memegang timba,
Memiliki ekonomi mencipta budaya,
Menjadi tuan di negara merdeka.

Hasil Nukilan :
Dato' Dr. Usman Awang

Think Big, Start Small

Philip Crosby said, "Selecting the right person for the right job is the largest part of coaching." and according to John G Agno,"Coaching helps you develop your leadership skills, clarify your values and guiding principles and build your reputation."

So what?

Laporan Program Pembimbing Rakan Sekerja

Peer Coaching Program = Program Pembimbing Rakan Sekerja? Mungkin "my direct translation is debatable".

Format Laporan:

1.0 Pengenalan
2.0 Kandungan Program
3.0 Kesan / Faedah Program
4.0 Implikasi Program
5.0 Cadangan / Pelan Tindakan
6.0 Penutup

Ini cadangan saja ... jika ada cadangan lain .. sangat dialu-alukan.





- MAM

Monday, March 14, 2005

"It takes a whole village to raise a child"

Pepatah Afrika di atas mengambarkan peranan mendidik melibatkan seluruh anggota masyarakat. Mungkinkah elemen ini telah mulai luntur dalam masyarakat kita, sehinggakan pendidikan di bebankan kepada pihak tertentu sahaja. Wajarkah ini berterusan? Atau kita perlu kembali ke pangkal jalan 'back to basic'.

Content Delivery in the 'Blogosphere'

By Richard E. Ferdig, Ph.D., and Kaye D. Trammell, University of Florida



The interest in new media for teaching and learning has highlighted the potential of innovative software and hardware for education. This has included laptops, handhelds, wireless systems and Web-based learning environments. Most recently, however, this interest has focused on blogs and blogging.

Weblogs, or blogs, are Web pages often likened to online personal journals. They are noted for being the "unedited, published voice of the people" (Winer 2003). Winer provides a more technical definition, suggesting that a Weblog is "a hierarchy of text, images, media objects and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser." Blogging is writing your thoughts into your blog, and the "blogosphere," a term coined by William Quick (2001), is the "intellectual cyberspace" that bloggers (i.e., those who blog) occupy.

While a few educators have already started using blogs in the classroom, more have focused on the potential of blogging in teaching and learning (Shachtman 2002; Embrey 2002). For instance, some claim that blogs may further democratize the Internet, addressing some of the concerns under girding the digital divide (Carroll 2003). In this article, we will describe the pedagogy behind blogs. We will address the reasons why blogs should be used as one of many teaching and learning tools, as well as describe the potential benefits of blogs for educators. Drawing on our own research and teaching, we will conclude with specific strategies for using blogs in the classroom.

The Pedagogy Behind Blogs

Current educational research and theory have demonstrated the importance of social interaction in teaching and learning. Drawing on Vygotsky's educational theory (1978), educators highlight the "knowledge construction" processes of the learner and suggest that "meaning making" develops through the social process of language use over time. As such, knowledge construction is discursive, relational and conversational in nature. Therefore, as students appropriate and transform knowledge, they must have authentic opportunities for publication of knowledge.

Through publication, teachers "can infer the process by which students transform meanings and strategies appropriated within the social domain, making those strategies their own" (Gavelek and Raphael 1996). It makes material accessible for subsequent reflection and analysis, allowing students to revisit and revise their artifacts; thus, enriching the learning experience (Krajcik et al. 1994; Olson 1994). Publication also offers the opportunity for feedback, which, in turn, scaffolds a learner in his or her quest for knowledge construction.

Blogs are useful teaching and learning tools because they provide a space for students to reflect and publish their thoughts and understandings. And because blogs can be commented on, they provide opportunities for feedback and potential scaffolding of new ideas. Blogs also feature hyperlinks, which help students begin to understand the relational and contextual basis of knowledge, knowledge construction and meaning making.

Research suggests that many of these advantages can also be afforded by asynchronous discussion forums. At one level we would agree, because both tools are very similar. As such, many of the same research-based findings about discussion forums would hypothetically apply to blogs. Blogs, therefore, represent the potential to promote interactivity, provide opportunities for active learning, increase student and teacher relationships, increase higher-order thinking skills, and improve flexibility in teaching and learning (Ferdig and Roehler, Unpublished).

On the other hand, blogs provide an environment that is more advanced than simple discussion forums. According to O'Shea (1999), technology can offer ways for students to establish personal and intellectual ownership of new concepts while they visualize and interact with abstract ideas. A blog essentially becomes a student's personal online soapbox. Unlike a discussion forum that is shared by many, a blog gives students full control and ownership over their online content. It becomes a virtual space to try out new concepts that do not have to fit within a hierarchical or topic-based discussion forum.

Blood (2002) further explicates how blogs are different, citing the hyperlink and the frequency of content updates. The hyperlink plays a more important role in a blog because the hyperlinks are designed to stretch outward into the Web to bring news stories, comments, pictures and other items outside of the host's server to the audience. In addition, the hyperlink is used as supporting information for any claim or commentary that the blogger makes on his or her page. Through the hyperlink to the source material, the reader can decide whether or not what the blogger wrote is in line with his or her own beliefs. Blood also suggests that a blog is designed to be visited frequently. This concept is represented by the reverse chronological order of the posts that allow readers to easily identify the most recent posts made to the page since the last visit.

This themed issue of T.H.E. Journal is focused on "using technology to deliver content." One normally thinks of content delivery systems when discussing this topic. In this day and age of constructivist pedagogy - focusing on the students' meaning making - using technology to deliver content should also be seen as using technology to help students create content. Blogs allow students to take ownership of their learning and publish authentic artifacts containing their thoughts and understandings. Blogs also provide a way for students to individualize their content; thus, help us rethink using technology to deliver content.

Practical Suggestions for Implementing Blogs

Blogs can be incorporated into any type of class for all reading- and writing-aged students. They can be used as a knowledge-management tool where teachers and students communicate with each other through the course of the semester, or as a tool to bring reflections or outside material into the class for everyone's benefit. Following are a number of practical suggestions that provide a good environment for successful blog integration.

Consider blogging yourself. Many institutions encourage their faculty and staff to take an online class before teaching one. The obvious benefit is that the instructor sees what it is like to use the technology prior to being on the other side of the virtual desk. The same rule applies for blogging: Take the time to understand blogging and the different possibilities of blogs before using them in the classroom.

Spend time visiting other classroom blogs. Different instructors have used blogs with different objectives in mind. Find classroom blogs that are related to your teaching level and topic to see how they have set up blogs in the classroom. A great place to find classroom blogs is through SchoolBlogs (www.schoolblogs.com). Also, since Google now owns Blogger.com, a quick search on Google for "blog" and your topic area should provide some interesting results. We encourage you to contact the classroom instructor to find out what challenges and successes they experienced with your content area.

Model blogging for your students. In teaching and learning, we have specific outcomes and uses for blogging. Spend several sessions introducing the concept of blogging, how it is done, why it is done, showing good and bad blogs, etc. Then, provide a set of strict rules for blogging such as frequency, length of posts, number of hyperlinks and staying on topic. This set of rules can be created together with students; however, the students should be made explicitly aware of what is not appropriate on the blog. And remember that because the blog is a Web-based, informal communication, students may be apt to use inappropriate language on their blogs. They might also fail to use references and citations when quoting others' work.

Make the blogs more public. We have already addressed the benefits of the worldwide audience in blogging. Take an active role in publicizing student blogs by sharing links with the outside world, as well as trying to get experts or nonclass people to visit the student blogs and comment on them. This interaction with experts not only increases that which is learned through the exercise, but signals that there are real people reading the published content. This can lead to the student spending more time in preparing blog posts and thinking more critically because of this wide dissemination.

Explain the "reach" of blogs to students. Clearly communicate that the messages posted on a blog are publicly accessible. Therefore, an employer, friend or parent can easily access the blog. As such, students should remember that once something is posted on the Internet, communication is irreversible, even if later edited or removed.


Four Benefits of Student Blogging

1. The use of blogs helps students become subject-matter experts. According to Blood (2002), there is a three-step process involved in blogging: scouring, filtering and posting. The blogger visits multiple Web sites relevant to his or her topic to find information to which they will respond, critique or hyperlink. The blogger must then filter the results to post the "best of" content for readers. Through this process, bloggers are exposed to vast amounts of information on their given topic, even if they do not comment on everything they find. The regularity of doing this at least once a week creates a repetitive process where the blogger builds an ever-growing knowledge base on particular topics.

2. The use of blogs increases student interest and ownership in learning. Technology has been cited as a motivating tool because of its newness. Blogs are novel to students not only because they are a newer technology, but also because students are blogging about topics that are important to them. Students direct their own learning while receiving input and feedback from others. They also take ownership of their learning in the blogging activities by actively searching for information.

3. The use of blogs gives students legitimate chances to participate. One goal of teaching and learning is to enculturate students into a community of practice (Lave and Wenger 1991). While blogging, students quickly learn that posted content can be read by those other than the teacher and their classmates. Blogging opens up assignments beyond the teacher-student relationship, allowing the world to grade students and provide encouragement or feedback on their writings. We have had students in our classrooms actually receive job offers based on postings in their blogs, because their postings provided a legitimate way to interact with an authentic audience in a community of practice.

4. The use of blogs provides opportunities for diverse perspectives, both within and outside of the classroom. Mainly due to time and curriculum constraints, not every student gets to share his or her thoughts in a traditional classroom. Blogs allow all students to participate in a discussion, opening up diverse perspectives. By blogging, the classroom also extends from the physical constraints of those who fit in the room and are registered to a limitless international audience. It is likely that someone outside of a class will come across student blogs, thereby extending diversity to include perspectives outside of the classroom.


Getting Started With Blogs and Blogging

There are several blogging solutions for the classroom, with some more expensive and involved than others. The least expensive solution is to adopt a free Web-based blogging service. SchoolBlogs (www.schoolblogs.com) or Blogger (www.blogger.com) both offer free blogging software and hosting services via the Internet. Creating a blog on most of these free services takes less than five minutes and many provide a multitude of options such as Web-based editing, public and private blogs, support for plug-ins (e.g., adding comments), and various templates. Most sites also have created FAQ and "Blogger Basics" sections to help with technical setup.

If an institution is willing to host blogging software on a locally maintained server, one might consider implementing products such as Movable Type or Radio UserLand. Both solutions offer more features than the free services such as the ability to add comments. Movable Type (www.movabletype.org) is free for noncommercial use and Radio UserLand (http://radiodiscuss.userland.com) user licenses are inexpensive. Other online blogging resources include:

  • Blogosphere.us (www.blogosphere.us) and Weblogg-ed (www.weblogg-ed.com) offer news on current trends in blogs and educational blogging. In both cases, the bloggers are educators who use blogging in their courses, while one of the online resources even teaches a class about blogging.
  • Currently, there are two major annual conferences for blogging enthusiasts. BlogTalk (http://blogtalk.net) held in Vienna, Austria, is an international academic conference where scholars from around the world present research on blogs. And BloggerCon (http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/bloggerCon), held at Harvard University, is a user-orientated conference where bloggers converge to talk about the social implications and uses of the technology.

References

Blood, R. 2002. The Weblog Handbook: Practical Advice on Creating and Maintaining Your Blog. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publishing.

Carroll, J. 2003. "New Kid on the Blog." CA Magazine, 136 (2): 16.

Embrey, T. 2002. "You Blog, We Blog." Teacher Librarian, 30 (2): 7-9.

Ferdig, R. and L. Roehler. Unpublished. "Student Engagement in Electronic Discussions: Examining Online Discourse in Literacy Pre-Service Classrooms." Article to appear in the Journal of Research on Technology in Education.

Gavelek, J. and T. Raphael. 1996. "Changing Talk About Text: New Roles for Teachers and Students." Language Arts, 73 (3): 182-192.

Krajcik, J., P. Blumenfeld, R. Marx and E. Soloway. 1994. "A Collaborative Model for Helping Middle Grade Science Teachers Learn Project-Based Instruction." The Elementary School Journal, 94 (5): 483-497.

Lave, J. and E. Wenger. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Olson, D. 1994. The World on Paper: The Conceptual and Cognitive Implications of Writing and Reading. New York: Cambridge University Press.

O'Shea, T. 1999. Birkbeck Web Forum on Learning and Teaching. Online: www.bbk.ac.uk/asd/view/view02.html.

Quick, W. 2001. DailyPundit.com. 30 Dec. Online: www.iw3p.com/DailyPundit/2001_12_30_dailypundit_archive.php#8315120.

Shachtman, N. 2002. "Blogging Goes Legit, Sort Of." Wired News. 6 June. Online: www.wired.com/news/school/0,1383,52992,00.html.

Vygotsky, L. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Winer, D. 2003. "What Makes a Weblog a Weblog?" Weblogs at Harvard Law. 23 May. Online: http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/whatMakesAWeblogAWeblog.

ICT Integration

Technology integration is occurring if:
  • teachers are trained in a full range of technology uses and in the determination of their appropriate roles and applications
  • teachers and students routinely turn to technology when needed
  • teachers and students are empowered and supported in carrying out those choices

Under these conditions, the potential of digital technologies to improve teaching and learning is likely to be realized. In an overview of the status of the integration of instructional technology in public education, Earle writes: “Integrating technology is not about technology – it is primarily about content and effective instructional practices. Technology involves the tools with which we deliver content and implement practices in better ways. Its focus must be on curriculum and learning. Integration is defined not by the amount or type of technology used, but by how and why it is used.” (Rodney Earle, 2002) Conditions for Classroom Integration of Technology The conditions necessary in a school to support the integration of technology are addressed in this web site in five component areas:

  • Physical facilities, capacity and conditions
  • Curricular connections
  • Teacher actions and characteristics
  • Student activities
  • Support To assist a school principal in determining the extent to which integration is occurring on a school-wide basis, the following sections provide indicators in each of the areas and the data collection required to assess them.
Physical Facilities, Capacity and Conditions

  • Computers, multimedia equipment and telecommunications stations are available at the places where teaching and learning activities will occur: classrooms, library/media center, computer labs or other large group places, and for use outside the school building. • Scheduling of facilities and devices as necessary is easy and quick
  • There is flexibility in relocation and multiple use of hardware to address learning opportunities.
  • The ratio of students to devices is small enough to support simultaneous use by a high percentage of students.
  • Access for students with disabilities is addressed through special software, hardware, and other accommodations.
  • Software, databases, and materials are available in every content area to address the curricular needs appropriately.
  • A process and criteria exist for selection of classroom hardware and software.
Curricular Connections

  • Analysis of curriculum areas has taken place to identify applications of technology appropriate to achieving the goals and objectives.
  • A set of minimum expectations has been developed for achievement of technology skills for students at various waypoints in their progress from PK to grade 12.
  • Guidelines identify the places in the curricular areas where instruction and practice in the technical skill expectations will occur.
  • A general philosophy or framework is in place among faculty that guides expectations for the independence of students in various ways, including the degree of student independence in deciding how and when to use technology in their learning activities.
  • There is a process in place for continual monitoring of curricular alignment of technology.
Teacher Actions and Characteristics

  • Teachers use technology in several ways, and such use is observable daily.
  • Teachers routinely choose the technologies appropriate to their activity and need.
  • Teachers are using online access to information resources from within the school and from home or other outside settings.
  • Promising or successful practices are often shared between and among teachers.
  • Teachers participate in the process of developing the guidelines for technology standards in curriculum areas.
  • Teachers follow the guidelines for technology use in the curriculum.
  • Teachers involve students in identifying a range of ways technology may be used to accomplish curricular objectives.
  • Teachers expect and encourage independence of students in choosing and using technologies appropriate to their tasks.
  • Teachers design assignments for students based on assumptions of technology use.
Student Activities

  • Students are involved in planning for their uses of technology in the curriculum.
  • Students use technology in several ways, and such use is observable daily.
  • Students routinely and independently choose the technologies appropriate to their activity and need.
  • The ways in which technology is used represent an improvement over previous methods of carrying out learning activities, or represent a learning activity which could not previously be done.
  • Students exhibit increasing knowledge and skill in the use of different technologies over a year or several years.
  • A large percentage of students are using technology in a wide range of applications simultaneously.
  • In student activities, both individual uses of technology and group activities supported by technology are evident.
  • In student activities with technology, both uses required of all and uses chosen by students are evident.
  • Students are using online access to information resources from within the school and from home or other outside settings.
Support
  • Staff development opportunities to improve skills in technology integration are available for all teachers relevant to subject areas.
  • Mechanisms for the sharing of promising classroom practices in technology among staff are available and their use is encouraged.
  • A mentoring plan is in place in which teachers expert in the use of technology are available and encouraged to provide assistance to other teachers.
  • Technical staff are available to operate, maintain and manage networks, computer stations, Internet connections, videoconferencing linkages, and software contracts.
  • Technical staff are available to offer technical assistance to teachers.
  • Teachers are provided with planning time to address technology integration.
  • An instructional materials budget is available to teachers and/or subject area groups for software acquisitions during the school year.

Peer Coaching Program (PCP)

One central issue in teacher training is integrating ICT effectively in classroom. PCP offering new and effective approach to help and guide our teachers in ICT integration.